## Description

Solution manual for Elementary Statistics in Social Research Essentials, 3rd edition by Jack A. Levin

Table of contents

IN THIS SECTION

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE

BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics

Part I Description

Chapter 2 Organizing the Data

Chapter 3 Measures of Central Tendency

Chapter 4 Measures of Variability

Part II From Description to Decision Making

Chapter 5 Probability and the Normal Curve

Chapter 6 Samples and Populations

Part III Decision Making

Chapter 7 Testing Differences Between Means

Chapter 8 Analysis of Variance

Chapter 9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance

Part IV From Decision Making to Association

Chapter 10 Correlation

Chapter 11 Regression Analysis

Chapter 12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation

Part V Applying Statistics

Chapter 13 Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems

COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics

The Nature of Social Research

Why Test Hypotheses?

The Stages of Social Research

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research

The Functions of Statistics

Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey

Part I Description

Chapter 2 Organizing the Data

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data

Comparing Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data

Cumulative Distributions

Dealing with Decimal Data

Flexible Class Intervals

Cross-Tabulations

Graphic Presentations

Chapter 3 Measures of Central Tendency

The Mode

The Median

The Mean

Taking One Step at a Time

Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median and Mean

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean

Chapter 4 Measures of Variability

The Range

The Variance and Standard Deviation

Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard deviation

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation

Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation

Comparing Measures of Variability

Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data

Part II From Description to Decision Making

Chapter 5 Probability and the Normal Curve

Probability

Probability Distributions

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution

Characteristics of the Normal Curve

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve

The Area Under the Normal Curve

Finding Probability Under the Normal Curve

Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve

Chapter 6 Samples and Populations

Random Sampling

Sampling Error

Sampling Distribution of Means

Standard Error of the Mean

Confidence Intervals

The t Distribution

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t

Estimating Proportions

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing From Samples to Populations

Part III Decision Making

Chapter 7 Testing Differences Between Means

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference Between Means

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference Between Means

Sampling Distribution of Differences Between Means

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences Between Means

Levels of Significance

Standard Error of the Difference Between Means

Testing the Difference Between Means

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference Between Means

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice

Two Sample Tests of Proportions

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference Between Proportions

Requirements for Testing the Difference Between Means

Chapter 8 Analysis of Variance.

The Logic of Analysis of Variance

The Sum of Squares

Mean Square

The F Ratio

Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance

Requirements for Using the F Ratio

Chapter 9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance

The Chi-Square Test

Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test of Significanc

Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparin Several groups

The Median Test

Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test

Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing Differences

Part IV From Decision Making to Association

Chapter 10 Correlation

Strength of Correlation

Direction of Correlation

Curvilinear Correlation

The Correlation Coefficient

Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Chapter 11 Regression Analysis

The Regression Model

Interpreting the Regression Line

Regression and Pearson’s Correlation

Step-by-Step Illustration: Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis

Chapter 12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation

Spearman’s Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient

Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman’s Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient

Goodman’s and Kruskal’s Gamma

Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman’s and Kruskal’s Gamma

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger Than 2 x 2 Tables

Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association

Part V Applying Statistics

Chapter 13 Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems

Research Situations

Research Solutions

Appendix A. A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics

Appendix B. Tables

Appendix C. List of Formulas

Glossary

Answers to Selected Problems

Index

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